GLosSARY

Anandamide is an endocannabinoid as well as a neurotransmitter produced in the brain that binds to cannabinoid receptors in order to maintain homeostasis. Also known as the “bliss molecule,” anandamide was the first endocannabinoid discovered in the human body and paved the way for our modern understanding of the endocannabinoid system.

Batch means a specific quantity of product that is uniform, that is intended to meet specifications for identity, purity, strength, and composition, and that is produced during a specified period of time according to a single manufacturing record. 

Batch number, or Process lot number means a unique numerical identifier that begins with the last five digits of a Vermont Processor’s registration number (10920), followed by the year of processing, and then followed by a unique number to identify the process lot, from which the complete history of the processing, packaging, labeling, and/or storage of a batch or lot of hemp product can be determined. 

Bioavailability refers to rate of absorption of cannabinoids in the body. In the case of hemp derived dietary supplements or topicals, bioavailability generally refers to the the quantity or fraction of the ingested or applied dose that is absorbed by the body.

Biomass refers to the harvested parts of the hemp plant (flower and leaves) intended for extraction. The most valuable hemp biomass is typically hand bucked or shucked rather than machine pulverized, has minimal amounts of woody stem material and contains a CBD content of at least 8%.  

Bioremediation is the idea that living organisms can be used to clean up toxic elements in soil and water. Hemp is considered to be one of the best phytoremediators, or plant based biomrememdiators on the planet thanks to its high affinity to for pulling soil bound metals, pesticides, solvents, hydrocarbons and other harmful elements up through it’s roots and into the vascular system of the plant. The most famous case of hemp as a bioremediator is the Chernobyl nuclear disaster where hemp was planted in and around the site of the accident to remove radioactive elements from the soil and water with extremely promising results. Because of hemp’s high capacity for bioaccumulation, it is extremely important to plant hemp intended for CBD extraction on clean, and ideally organically certified land to ensure that no toxins or heavy metals make it in to the final products.

Broad spectrum means a concentrate that was extracted from hemp which contains some cannabinoids but has had its THC removed down below the LOQ.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring cannabinoid found in the Cannabis sativa L. plant. It is considered to be non-psychoactive while also mitigating the psychoactive effects of THC.

Cannabinoid means any of a group of closely related chemical compounds that are naturally occurring within the hemp or cannabis plant. These include THC (tetrahydrocannabinol),THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid),CBD (cannabidiol),CBDA (cannabidiolic acid),CBN (cannabinol),CBG (cannabigerol),CBC (cannabichromene),CBL (cannabicyclol),CBV (cannabivarin),THCV (tetrahydrocannabivarin),CBDV (cannabidivarin),CBCV (cannabichromevarin),CBGV (cannabigerovarin),CBGM (cannabigerol monomethyl ether),CBE (cannabielsoin),CBT (cannabicitran).

Cannabidiolic acid (CBD-A) is the precursor of CBD before decarboxylation.

Certificate of analysis (COA) means a report prepared by a certified laboratory about the analytical testing it performed on a batch of hemp or hemp-infused product and the results of the testing.

Closed-loop extraction A method of chemical extraction that reuses the solvent rather than dispersing it into the air.

Cold Ethanol Extraction involves saturating hemp biomass with high purity ethanol which acts as a solvent to extract the cannabinoids and other beneficial phytonutrients from the plant material. The extraction is performed at cryogenic temperatures to prevent chlorophyll and plant waxes from entering the resulting hemp oil. Our proprietary closed loop extraction process yields a fully winterized and decarbed crude oil that consistently comes in at over 75% cannabinoids.

Concentrate (or extract) means the material created by refining hemp or cannabis through the removal of chemical compounds. Concentrates or extracts have much higher potency than raw hemp or cannabis.

Contaminant means any pesticide, solvent, heavy metal, mycotoxin, foreign material, and bacterial and fungal impurity introduced through cultivation or processing.

Cultivar means a plant variety with known characteristics that results from the process of crossbreeding and genetic stabilization to express desired traits.

Decarboxylation or decarbing is the process for activating hemp or cannabis through the application of heat. After being exposed to the requisite amount of heat, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) is converted to THC, and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) is converted to CBD.

Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, also referred to as “THC,” is the primary psychoactive cannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa L. It is also often the second most prevalent cannabinoid found in decarboxylated hemp after CBD.

Distillate refers to an amber to clear colored concentrate typically containing greater than 75% cannabinoid compounds. It is most often created through short path distillation, with all impurities removed.

Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is a biochemical communication system in the human body made up of endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors that plays a vital role in regulating our everyday experience of life. Endocannabinoids like anandamide function as neurotransmitters to send chemical messages between nerve cells when they bind with our cannabinoid receptors. Phytocannabinoids such as CBD and THC can similarly modulate many physiological systems in the brain and body. The primary function of the endocannabinoid system is to maintain homeostasis within the body.

The Entourage Effect refers to the the therapeutic interplay of the myriad botanical compounds found within the hemp plant interacting with each other to create a boosting effect. The core idea being that the sum is greater than its parts when it comes to the diverse ensemble of varied botanical compounds acting in synergy to create a beneficial effect. While the Entourage Effect typically refers to the interplay of cannabinoids and terpenes, it stands to reason that an untold number of additional botanical compounds within the hemp plant may also have a hand in facilitating a harmonious effect.

Flavonoids are widely distributed in plants and fulfill many functions. They are often pointed to when explaining the health benefits attributed to diets rich in fruits and vegetables. Hemp contains a specific sub-class of flavonoids called cannaflavins that appear to have some unique properties and may play a role in facilitating the Entourage Effect.

Full Spectrum hemp oil contains all the cannabinoids and other plant compounds that are found naturally occurring within the hemp plant. With hundreds of different botanical compounds, phytonutrients and cannabinoids naturally present within the hemp plant, full spectrum oil enables what is often referred to as the ‘entourage effect’. Full spectrum oil also retains other beneficial constituents of the plant, such as terpenes, flavonoids, minerals, protein, and essential vitamins. When considered against the shift toward single molecule synthetics over the past 75+ years, embracing the botanical wisdom inherent in the full spectrum approach can be considered something of a R/Evolution.

Hemp means the plant Cannabis sativa L. with the federally defined tetrahydrocannabinol concentration level of below .3% Total THC. The hemp varieties we use for CBD extraction are often morphotypically identical to drug cultivar cannabis. They are simply bred to contain less than the (quite arbiltrarilly)  mandated .3% THC. Under .3% and it’s magically considered to be hemp. But rest assured, it’s the same damn plant.

Hemp crop means standing or harvested hemp that complies with the federal definition of hemp prior to processing.

Homeostasis is the dynamic state of balance or equilibrium within a cell, or the entire body. It is the condition of optimal functioning for an organism, maintained through the regulation of many chemical and physical variables. The endocannabinoid system is engaged in the maintenance of homeostasis through the use of cannabinoid receptors. When a receptor detects a discrepancy in the system, endogenous cannabinoids are synthesized by the body to interact with them in order to facilitate a chemical response tailored to address the underlying issue. These same receptors interact with plant derived phytocannabinoids in the same manner and at the same locations within the body. 

Isolate – CBD isolate is a crystalline solid or powder that contains 99% purified CBD. Through a refinement process that strips away all the phytocannabinoids and and other plant compounds, the CBD molecule is isolated to its purest form. As it contains no THC, CBD isolate is favored by people who are sensitive to THC or still have to deal with the draconian absurdity of cannabis drug testing. 

Lipid Infusion – All natural and solventless, Lipid infusion is often considered to be the simplest form of cannabinoid extraction. Our proprietary method uses nothing more than temperature, pressure and time to infuse organic fatty acids (Coconut Oil) with the full spectrum of botanical compounds found within the hemp plant. This process maintains the integrity of the plant in its natural state by extracting all of the original cannabinoids, terpenes and phytonutrients contained within hemp in concentration ratios that are consistent with the raw form of the plant. By extracting directly into a carrier oil we can eliminate the need to isolate the CBD and then reconstitute it back into an oil before formulating.

LOQ (Limit of Quantification) describes the smallest concentration of something that can be reliably measured by an analytical procedure within an laboratory setting.

Lot means a batch, or a specific identified portion of a batch, or, in the case of a hemp product produced by continuous process, a specific identified amount produced in a specified unit of time or quantity in a manner that is uniform and that is intended to meet specifications for identity, purity, strength, and composition. 

Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) oil: A refined form of coconut oil, MCT is known for its antimicrobial, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. This oil is considered an ideal carrier oil for CBD as it is rapidly metabolized by the body.

Microorganisms means yeasts, molds, bacteria, viruses, toxins, and other similar microscopic organisms. 

Phytocannabinoids are molecules synthesized by plants, primarily cannabis and hemp. When extracted and then consumed or applied topically, they interact with our endocannabinoid receptors to produce therapeutic effects and help maintain homeostasis. Major cannabinoids include THC and CBD. Minor cannabinoids include CBG, CBC and many more.

Quality means that the hemp product meets the established specifications for identity, purity, strength, and composition, and limits on contaminants, and has been manufactured, packaged, labeled, and held under conditions to prevent adulteration. 

Receptor Chemical structures made of proteins that receive and transmit signals within our cells. In the endocannabinoid system, receptors have an affinity for and bind with endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids.

Representative sample means a sample with an adequate number of units that are intended to ensure that the sample accurately portrays the material being sampled. 

Label Guarantee is the declared minimum of individual cannabinoid content in a hemp product or hemp-infused product.

Major Cannabinoids The major constituents of cannabis, referring to Tetrahydrocannaidiol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD).

Minor Cannabinoids Any and all cannabinoids other than Tetrahydrocannabidiol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD).

Nanoencapsulation is a branch of nanotechnology applied to the food and drug industries. It is essentially the process of coating or encapsulating microscopic (nanoscale) particles with a secondary material to form nanocapsules. When applied to CBD, nanoencapsulation can provide superior bioavailability, increased shelf life, and most importantly water solubility. CBD on its own is hydrophobic and almost completely insoluble in water. To infuse CBD into a beverage like our line of sparkling waters, nanoencapsulation must be employed to prevent the CBD from just separating out and floating to the top out of solution. While many CBD companies erroneously claim to have nanoencapsulated products, we have developed a proprietary technique for producing stable nanocapsules through the use of phospholipids. Our methodology creates a true nanoencapsulation because the resulting nanocapsules have been measured to be <100 nanometres in size.

Organic – produced without the use of chemical pesticides, fertilizers or other artificial agents.

Organic Certification – USDA certified organic products are grown and processed according to federal guidelines addressing, among many factors, soil quality, pest and weed control, and use of additives. Organic producers rely on natural substances and physical, mechanical, or biologically based farming methods to the fullest extent possible.

Hemp can be called organic if it’s certified to have grown on soil that had no prohibited substances applied for three years prior to harvest. Prohibited substances include most synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.

When it comes to processed, multi-ingredient foods and dietary supplements, the USDA organic standards specify additional considerations. For example, regulations prohibit organically processed foods from containing artificial preservatives, colors, or flavors and require that their ingredients are organic.

Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds produced by a variety of plans including hemp and cannabis. They play a major role in the medicinal and therapeutic use of cannabis by creating subtle alterations in effects across different strains.

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THC-A) is the precursor of delta- 9 THC before decarboxylation.

Total theoretical tetrahydrocannabinol or THC content is the maximum amount of possible delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol in a hemp crop if total conversion were to occur, determined by the following calculation: the sum of the concentration of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol and its precursor, tetrahydrocannabinol-A, multiplied by 0.8777 on a dry weight basis and reported to two significant figures:

  𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑇𝐻𝐶 = ([𝑑𝑒𝑙𝑡𝑎 − 9 𝑇𝐻𝐶] + ([𝑇𝐻𝐶𝐴] 0.877))

Type I means a cultivar of Cannabis sativa L. that is THC dominate.

Type II means a cultivar of Cannabis sativa L. ratio between CBD and THC vary, and where delta9 THC concentration is greater than 0.3 percent.

Type III means a cultivar of Cannabis sativa L. that is CBD dominate, at least 20:1.

Type IV means a cultivar of Cannabis sativa L. that is neither THC nor CBD dominate.